Home / 3D Printing Processes / Purdue University’s Zucrow Lab develops vibrating nozzle 3D printing process for highly viscous materials

Purdue University’s Zucrow Lab develops vibrating nozzle 3D printing process for highly viscous materials

A new 3D printing technique allows materials with the consistency of clay or cookie dough to be used to manufacture a variety of shapes with precision. Purdue University assistant professor Emre Gunduz used ultrasonic vibrations to maintain a flow of the material through the printer nozzle. (Purdue University photo/Jared Pike)
A new 3D printing technique allows highly viscous materials to be used to manufacture a variety of shapes. Purdue University assistant professor Emre Gunduz used ultrasonic vibrations to maintain a flow of the material through the printer nozzle. High-resolution 3D printing of viscous materials is seen as a key evolutionary step in the widespread adoption of AM technologies to manufacture with a much wider range of materials. Although some strides have been made for less viscous materials such as silicone and epoxies, several challenges remain as the materials’ viscosity increases.

With the process fine-tuned by the Purdue University researchers, it’s now possible to 3D print extremely viscous materials, with fine precision. This development may soon allow the creation of customized ceramics, pharmaceuticals, biomedical implants, foodstuffs, and even solid rocket fuel.

3D printing to infinity and beyond

In fact, the research is being conducted at Purdue’s Zucrow Labs, the largest academic propulsion lab in the world. As such, the first practical application being explored is for solid rocket fuel.

“Solid propellants start out very viscous, like the consistency of cookie dough,” said Monique McClain, a Ph.D. candidate in Purdue’s School of Aeronautics and Astronautics.  “It’s very difficult to print because it cures over time, and it’s also very sensitive to temperature. But with this method, we were actually able to print strands of solid propellant that burned comparably to traditionally cast methods.”

McClain tested the combustion by printing two-centimeter samples, igniting them in a high-pressure vessel (up to 1,000 pounds per square inch) and analyzing slow-motion video of the burn.

For solid rocket fuels, 3D printing offers the opportunity to customize the geometry of a rocket and modify its combustion.  “We may want to have certain parts burn faster or slower, or something that burns faster in the center than the outside,” McClain added. “We can create this much more precisely with this 3D printing method.”

“It’s very exciting that we can print materials with consistencies that no one’s been able to print.” said Emre Gunduz, assistant research professor in the School of Mechanical Engineering. “We can 3D print different textures of food; biomedical implants, like dental crowns made of ceramics, can be customized. Pharmacies can 3D print personalized drugs, so a person only has to take one pill, instead of 10.”

By applying high-amplitude ultrasonic vibrations to the nozzle of the 3D printer itself, the Purdue team was able to solve a problem that has bedeviled manufacturers for years. Most proposed solutions to this problem involve changing the composition of the materials themselves, but the Purdue team took a completely different approach.

“We found that by vibrating the nozzle in a very specific way, we can reduce the friction on the nozzle walls, and the material just snakes through.”

The Purdue team has been able to print items with 100-micron precision, which is better than most consumer-level 3D printers while maintaining high print rates.

Going with the flow

“The most common form of 3D printing is thermoplastic extrusion,” Gunduz said. “That’s usually good enough for prototypes, but for actual fabrication, you need to use materials with high strength, like ceramics or metal composites with a large fraction of solid particles. The precursors for these materials are extremely viscous, and normal 3D printers can’t deposit them, because they can’t be pushed through a small nozzle.”

It’s difficult to visualize the 3D printing process because the materials used are opaque and the surfaces are hidden inside the nozzle. So the team traveled to Argonne National Laboratory, outside Chicago, to conduct high-speed microscopic X-ray imaging. They were able to see inside the nozzle and precisely measure the flow of the clay-like material for the first time.

“The results were really striking,” Gunduz concluded.  “Nobody has ever characterized a viscous flow through a channel this way.  We were able to quantify the flow, and understand how our method was actually working.”

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About Davide Sher

Over the last decade Davide has built up extensive experience as both a technology journalist and communications consultant. Born in Milan, Italy, he spent 12 years in the United States, where he received his undergraduate degree from SUNY Stony Brook. He is a senior analyst for US-based firm SmarTech Publishing focusing on the additive manufacturing industry. He founded London-based 3D Printing Business Media Ltd. which specialises in media and communications services for the 3DP and AM industry, through which he runs 3D Printing Business Directory, the largest global directory of companies related to 3DP, as well as two editorial websites, 3D Printing Media Network and Il Replicatore.

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