Liquid Deposition Modeling (LDM)

What is Liquid Deposition Modeling?

Liquid Deposition Modeling (LDM) is the name of the technology that Italian delta 3D printer manufacturer WASP uses for its extruder for ceramic materials, which can be adapted to most 3D printers on the market today. WASP’s work has always been focused on the development of systems that allow the use of functional, end-use materials like ceramics, porcelain, clay, alumina, zirconium and other advanced ceramics, in order to promote digital handicraft and self-production.

Advantages Disadvantages
  • Low cost of systems
  • Limited layer resolution
  • Wide range of materials available
  • Limited part geometry
  • Very Large size part capabilites
  • Difficult to operate properly

How does LDM work?

The LDM Wasp Extruder is based on a pneumatic system in which a pump sends the paste ceramic materials through to the deposition arm. It can reach a level of precision which is very close to that of plastic polymers extruders thanks to the combination of a screw extruder and a pressure extruder. With this technology it is possible to accurately control the flow of material and also use retraction to interrupt deposition. Innovations also include a system which eliminates air bubbles in the mixture and an outward pressure multiplier up to 40 bar in the screw extruder.

Available LDM 3D printers:

The LDM set was created to be installed on WASP printers, such as the top-selling DeltaWASP 2040 or the large size DeltaWASP 4060.  It can be adapted to most of the existing machines and it is very easy to install. Users just need to 3D print the supporting cover (source files are provided by WASP) and link the extruder to the wiring, setting the “number of steps per millimeter” to 400.

Model  DeltaWASP 2040/4060
Manufacturer  WASP
Price $3000-15,000
Technology  LDM (pneumatic extrusion)
Materials  Clay, porcelain, alumina, zirconia
Effective Build Volume  20 ø x 40 cm up to 4o ø x 60 cm
Layer Thickness  200 μm

You can find more information and the specifications for the machine here.

Further reading on WASP and LDM:

• SmarTech Issues First Report on Traditional and Technical Ceramics AM
• WASP Hub Opens New Regional Hub in Sweden at RISE in Umeå
• Ceramics, Breaking Through the Next 3D Printing Material Frontier / Part 1

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